If you arrive at an airport, you pass through immigration control first (before collecting your luggage). There are usually two main queues: one for European Economic Area and Swiss nationals, and one for everyone else. Make sure you join the correct queue. A border force officer will look at your passport and check your visa/entry clearance.
When you enter (or re-enter) the UK with Tier 4 immigration permission, the border force officer must be satisfied that you speak English at the required level, without needing an interpreter. The Home Office's Modernised Guidance for staff assessing Tier 4 applications and entry (issued 6 April 2017) confirms on page 163 that officers "must not give [Tier 4 students] a test of any kind but rather follow the normal line of questioning".
You should also have documents relating to:
- your studies (letter from your university/college/school, including your Confirmation of Acceptance for Studies number if you are coming to the UK as a Tier 4 student)
- your finances
- where you are going to stay
in your hand baggage, in paper form (not on an electronic tablet or mobile phone).
Before leaving immigration control, check that the border force officer has put a date stamp (if you had a visa or entry clearance) in your passport; or (if you are a non-visa national coming for a course of six months or less and do not have entry clearance) check that you have been stamped in as a 'short-term student'. After immigration control, you will be able to collect your baggage. At most airports baggage is unloaded on to one of a number of moving belts ('carousels') in the baggage collection area. Look for your flight number and the name of the place your flight departed from on the screens, or above the carousels, and wait for each item of your baggage to appear. If any item does not come through, find a representative of the airline you travelled on and fill in a lost baggage form.
The Home Office has created a short film with advice about preparing for the UK border, including having landing cards ready and who is eligible to use ePassport gates.